My publication and presentation at the International African Business and Management (AIBUMA)

Thank God for the strength and knowledge to serve my country and the entire African continent. The pleasure was definitely mine to make presentation and finally publication at the International African Business and Management Conference.


The conferences seeks to empower both upcoming and established entrepreneurs in Kenya and the entire African Continent.


Let us all join hands in building Kenya, a country that will be emulated and copied far and wide globally. We have the resources we need to move this country to the next level. Its our country and the best we can do is to join hands in its development agenda. Let us all pull together for a better Kenya.

For more information on the conference, kindly follow the link below

May we all strive for a better Kenya.


Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

My initiatives for a Better Kenya


I would like to take this opportunity to thank the residents of Nyalenda Slums for being open to speak out the daily problems they encounter with regards to poor health conditions. This is a broad step to development in this country.  To realize our vision 2030 dream, we must make gunning steps in promoting safe health conditions in this country, we need a disease free country, we have lost innocent people and even children because of polluted water in our slums. This must stop, and our efforts will determine our future. Let us strengths not be limited by negative ethnicity or other forms of impurities that leads us nowhere as a country. Nyalenda slums houses nearly all tribes in this country and therefore we must join hands irrespective of out tribes to build it and eliminate poverty.

After my presentation- a photo with the DAAD and Exceed Family




Many thanks to Maseno University for the invitation to the Sustainable Water Management Conference.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Inventory Management- Bridge to Business Success



The world of business is proving to be the most successful sector than other options globally. However, it is not fair to believe so, because success in business is accompanied by a lot more of challenges than one could imagine. In business, one has to choice either to prosper or to lose. Prosperity in business involves management of resources & other relevant factors. That is where management of inventory comes in. Inventory as an asset is considered to pose a serious challenge to business especially in restaurant sector. Pizza restaurant just like other restaurants faces a wide range of challenges form inventory management which includes; plan inventories, plan sales, plan markdowns and plan inventory receipts (Pickle and Abrahamson, 1990)

The challenges outline is so much rooted in small Pizza restaurants and have impact on the successes of the business as explained below:

(a)   Plan inventories

Inventory management in small pizza restaurant is one challenging task  as you need to put in place more inventory that you expect in order to set up your displays, plan and support your sales until the next delivery and plan ahead so as when there is late vendor delivery, you are able to meet a safe stock. Pizza inventory management is extremely tricky as you may need to have enough inventories on hand at the end of the month in order to support months to come.

(b)   Plane sales

Another factor that may affect inventory management is the target sales volume for every month/knowing what you expect to sell at the end of the month. By knowing what you expect to sell at the end of the month, you are able to plan effectively for the business. In the case of small Pizza restaurant, putting in place a clear spreadsheet from the POS sales records is the only cost effective way. Small Pizza restaurants need to begin with their past years sales records and make any necessary adjustments for other unusual factors like unfavorable weather and out of inventories among other factors that affect the business (United States, 1989).


(c)    Plan Markdowns

Planning is particularly beneficial for inventory management. The Pizza restaurant experience difficult conditions when it comes to planning on inventories. The restaurant needs to draw the dates of the early seasonal markdowns before the commencement of the season. Every season comes with its own complex challenges that if not well addressed, may lead to the fall of the business.  The business should plan for inventories required at the point, the percentage of the markdown and also the markdown sales before the second markdown (


(d)   Plan inventories receipts

The plan inventories receipts are concerned with inventories approximations. In small Pizza restaurant, planning for sales volume at the end of the month is particularly beneficial. The restaurant is required to put enough inventories to cover until the end of the month or else you fail to deliver the expected volume which may intern lead to make of losses. The restaurant needs to mark its sales every month and know how much of inventories to have for each season of the month. Every month comes with its challenges like unfavorable weather, increased sales, low sales among other things thus plan inventories receipts is tremendously valuable (United States ,1989).


The above explained problems and solutions in small pizza restaurant majorly occur due to inadequate preseason sales and inventory management. Small Pizza restaurant may think to have no time for inventory management, but it is a vital and critical measure to successful business. (United States, 1982).


Fixed Order Quantity and Fixed Period Quantity

In the case of Fixed Order System, inventories of specific amount are ordered at one time. While in Fixed period order system, orders of inventories are periodically made, but are different for each period. Fixed order system is best for non-perishable goods as it allow for specific amount of inventories to be ordered at a time. It limits reorder mistakes, create storage space and avoid wastage of funds by limiting unnecessary expenditure. Unlike fixed order system, fixed period system best suits perishable good as it allows for inventories orders that consider seasonal conditions as opposed to fixed order system. Just like Fixed order system, fixed period system also allows for continuous monitoring of inventories in order to determined quantities required for the next period (

 In the case of dough, fixed period system will offer the best solution as it will consider; reduction in volume of the order, longer lead time, paper work time, order periodically placed, difference in quantity of the order, fluctuations in demand and seasonal variation. Unlike fixed period quantity, fixed order quantity cannot go well with dough due to the nature of the inventory management. Fixed order of dough each season may lead to wastage and making of losses in the business. It does not also consider fluctuations in demand which is decidedly much distinguish with dough (

 It is exceedingly amusing to note that the situation will change if we were to have a chain of 25 pizza restaurants as opposed to one pizza restaurant. We must first consider that if we were to have one small pizza restaurant, the restaurant will enjoy the monopoly in the market. The first scenario was of one small pizza restaurant that will experience fluctuation in demand for different seasons, while for 25 small pizza restaurant, the customer demand will change. There will be full competition in the market and every pizza restaurant would want to offer the best. This will result to adaptation of fixed order quantity to allow the monitoring of the available inventories and only make order once the inventories at hand are running out. This method will not only save the business form unnecessary spending but will also avoid wastage of inventories. The dough will only be ordered once they are running out of stock as opposed to ordering for a specific period, because the business will not be able to predict sales for a specific period (

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Pricing- Chief Component of Organization and Economy.




Pricing involves the determination of what the organization will receive in exchange for its products and services. The main determining factors of pricing are market place, quality of the products or services, market condition, competition and manufacturing cost. Pricing is key among the most primary components of the marketing mix because it is one of the four Ps i.e. price, product, promotion and place.  In addition, price is the only revenue generating component among the other four Ps while the rest are cost centers (

Product positioning, product features, promotion and channel decisions, all are relate to pricing. This explains the importance of pricing, and that’s where pricing strategies come into play. Pricing is very important for organization and aims at maximizing current profit, maximizing current revenue, maximizing quantity, recovery of partial costs, quality leadership; it helps in business survival and to maintain the status quo in business (

Apple Inc, one of the companies that use technology to win the price war has successfully experience rapid growth in the market. The company produces and sells different kind of consumer electronics products ranging from personal computers, commercial servers, digital distributor of media content and computer software. The company’s core products are smart phone, iPhone, iPod portable media players, iPod table computers and Macintosh computers. Apple Inc, headquartered in Cupertino, California, has a long history dating back from its formation in April 1, 1976 (

The American multinational corporation has gone through tuff market conditions resulting from financial challenges to stiff competition in the market.  By revenue rating, Apple Inc is the world’s second largest information technology firm after Samsung Electronics. The company is also the world’s third largest mobile phone producer after Samsung Electronics and Nokia.  Apple Inc has 394 retail stores in fourteen countries and also has online Apple Store and iTune Store. By market capitalization, Apple Inc is the second-largest public commercial firm in the world, with a predictable value of US $ 414 billion. The company currently has 72,800 permanent full-time employees and 3,300 temporary full-time employees worldwide (


 Pricing Strategies

Pricing strategy can focus on three different approaches namely; cost-based pricing which is determined by adding profit part on top of the cost of producing of a product. The buying prices are set by adding a percentage to the rate of manufacturing or purchasing a product. The pricing approach has received critics as an out-dated method of pricing and as a discredited pricing strategy. However, it is still widely practiced by most of the manufacturing firms worldwide. The second approach is the competitor based pricing in which competitor price influences the price set. Customers are always faced with the challenge of choice of who to buy from in a stiff competitive market (

The customer may choice to buy for the lowest bidder in the market or from the highest bidder, or perhaps even choice to fall in between and choice the average bidder. However, customers are always careful of their choice bearing in mind that expensive may not mean quality and cheap may not necessarily mean low quality. This approach deletes much power from the organization with regards to price setting. The main slogan of a competitive market is “going rate” pricing, referring to price setting that is in line with the price charges by direct competitors. The delicate part of this pricing approach is that the company will require other ways to attract customers. This includes using non-price methods to effectively compete like offering distinct customer services (


However, it is advantageous in that, selling price should be in line with competitors, thus price is not a competitive disadvantage.  Last but not least is the customer based pricing in which prices are determined by what the customer will comfortably pay for. The customer based pricing is divided into three key strategies namely; price skimming, penetrating price and loss leaders. The penetrating price is where a business sets a price with the main aim of increasing the market share, by encouraging customers to switch to their products. This can be achieved by setting a relatively low initial entry price in the market and is commonly associated with marketing objective (

Price skimming is where a business sets a high cost before other rivals come into the market. This mainly targets the early product adopters who are always ready to spend extra coins for the new products in the market.  Then there is the loss leader approach which is a method for sales promotion. It is a method of setting product price below the cost price so as to attract customers. The main aim of this method is to encourage customers to make more purchases of profitable products while in the shop. The above pricing approaches displays how price is a very key competitive tool and is a very flexible component of the marketing mix (

Apple Inc price strategies

Apples Inc pricing tactics can be dated back to the 1976 from the era of their Pre-Macintosh computer family by the introduction of the Apple I (the first Apple Inc production) which was costing $ 666.66. This was the initial cost and was the first low cost microcomputer system with terminal and 8k bytes of RAM on single PC Card.  The low cost was to capture the attention in the market and show off as a company with quality products with low cost. Apple Inc price strategies revolve around competitor based pricing and customer based pricing. The multinational corporation has successfully achieve evolution of its products and services from the year 1976 beginning from Pre-Macintosh, Classic Macs, iBook, iMac/eMac, iOS, Ipod, MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, Macintosh Centris, Macintosh II, Macintosh LC, Macintosh Quadra, Mac mini, Mac Pro, Newton, Performa, PowerBook, PowerBook G3/G5, PowerMac, PowerMac G3/G4/G5, to Servers among other electronics. Steve Jobs, one of the founders of the Apple Inc introduced the customer based pricing system and it has so far worked on the corporation’s favor (

Steve Jobs had a focus of being the market leader and to achieve that, he adopted a pattern of always being the first investor in the market through modification of the apples Inc already existing products and news discoveries. Apple Inc main price tactic is price skimming, where the firm introduce a new product in the market and set a high cost before other rivals come into the market.  This was displayed during the introduction of Apple iPad. The iPad is costing as much as $499, in both the retail shops and the online shopping. The iPad faces little competition in the market; thus the corporation has managed to monopolize the market to a great extent. Despite the high cost, the iPad was fully endorsed in the market and the corporation made high sales ever from the product (

 The introduction 5 GB iPod of was also based on the price skimming tactics. Apple Inc believed the product had the perfect compromise between storage capacity, size, and impressive industrial design and was generally a unique product with distinct features ever seen in the market. This made Apple believe that it had a highly potential product in the market, thus concluded that a set price of $399 would not be a problem to consumers. However, the high price did not go down well with the media, claiming that the product price was too high. Despite the press critics, Apple Inc made successful sales of the gadget in the market and made high profits than ever. Apple then added 10 GB model to the line of iPod selling at $ 499 and made better sales in the market again. Apple Inc has practice price skimming tactics in all its products and MacBook Pro (Retina) was also not excluded in this customer-based pricing strategy (

The MacBook Pro (Retina) was selling at $2199 for 2.3 GHz quad-core Intel i7, 256 GB SSD and $2199 for 2.6 GHz quad-core Intel i7,512 GB SSD. From the above notable example, it is very evident that Apple Inc, the American multinational corporation has recognized customer-based pricing strategy for its pricing patterns. The company has for decades use technology, to fight the war price in the very competitive market which includes other multinational corporations like Samsung Electronics and Nokia (

Price skimming is a strategy that cannot stay for long as competitors would also find ways to keep with the pace in the market by introducing other competitive products that offer the same solutions to customers and satisfy the same need. The other challenge for this kind of pricing tactic is that, Apple Inc Corporation may slow down on its volume growth of the demand of the product.  This will give main competitors like Samsung Electronics a considerable margin and time to develop effective alternative products ready when the market demand is stronger.  With Samsung Electronics topping the list as the world’s leading information technology firm, it is very evident that Apple price skimming tactics may face challenges in the future if the corporation fail to do a thorough market research (

Apple also practices competitor-based pricing and this is very evident that after the price skimming, the product cost drops to the normal price in the market.  This is seen on the drastic drop in price of 5 and 10 GB iPod from $399 and $499 to $ 299 and $ 399 respectively. This is due to the strong competition in the market majorly from Samsung Electronic and Nokia (


Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

Global Business and Marketing- A Key to Economic Development


Marketing is a very vital tool for the success of any business globally. Every business firm would like to be recognized by the potential customers/clients. The situation can be worse if the business is facing stiff competition in the market. This will require extra efforts in marketing and that is where online marketing come into play. With the stiff competition in the market, strategies must be put in place to upgrade the online marketing. This can be fully achieved by increasing the site ranking in the Search Engine Optimization. If the site ranking on search engine optimization is high, the site will be easily accessible and visible to potential customers. “Rate Your Uni”, a website formed by a small group of UK University education professionals, with a vision of being the best website that will allow both UK students and overseas students to share by rating degree programs and exchanging experiences among other things.  The “Rate Your Uni” site wants to set a pace by being different from other sites like by joining minds and experiences globally. The site’s source of revenue will be advertising and therefore will have a major task of upgrading the ranking level of the site in search engine optimization so as to be the leader in the market. Not forgetting the stiff competition in the market, the site will need to do more on its sitemap. This must be one that allows easy navigation, easy access and fast processing of information. The visibility of the site makes its easy for retrieval of information by users. With the known, online marketing sites in UK and by extension Europe, the site needs extra commitment of the administrators to ensure that its is frequently updated. In addition, the site also requires additional elements that will keep users to the site and make users to always visit the site. This includes love texts, video programs, documentaries, games, online music, and online links to other major sites. By doing this, site will gain popularity and rapidly grow over time. This adds the site administrators another task of doing a thorough research to gauge on what students both within UK and oversees prefer.

Preference varies from individual to individual, thus the research must note key important factors that can attract online users to the site. However, the site must not forget its soul purpose of establishment, it must remain and uphold its mission and vision statement. With all the consideration in place, the “Rate Your Uni” will collect enough revenues from the advertisements and also enable both UK students and oversees students share ideas among other important factors for global development (Dunford, 2008).


Sitemap is a list of pages of online site organized in a hierarchical fashion which is reachable to users. There are two types of sitemaps namely; XML and HTML. The XML sitemap is a well organized format that site user does not need to see, but informs the search engine like Google and Yahoo about the web pages in the site. The other one is HTML which is designed to assist the user in finding the web page content, thus does not need to comprise of all web sub-pages. The “Rate Your Uni” sitemap is very well designed to allow both online gurus and people with fairly low online knowledge to navigate through the features on the page. The sitemap is very appealing and visible to user; this reduces the hectic task of looking through features after features to access the user needs (Dunford, 2008).

Wire Frame

The above “Rate Your Uni” web home page is professionally designed to help both UK and oversees students share their experience and rate their degree programs. The study program button will assist site users in learning more about the study programs in UK based universities and other universities across the world. This will enable students to gauge and compare notes on a different kind of study programs across the globe. The University button also allows students to learn more about different Universities across the globe and what they do, study programs and the environment. The Blog button directs users to the blogs diary. This will enable students to share ideas and learn more about other students and what they do. It is the best was to share experiences and views global (Dunford, 2008).

The nest button is the scholarship button that allows students and users to identify different scholarship programs that much their expectations.  Through scholarship programs provided by different organizations and institutions across the globe, users will be able to meet their expectations through the scholarship programs. The other tab is the search button that will enable users to navigate to other pages of the website that does not appear on the home page. The about us part helps users to know more about the page regarding the mission and visions of the “Rate You Uni”. This will allow for the recognition and acknowledgement of the great work done by the web pate administrators. The most interesting part is the library link to the web page. Users will be able to navigate to the library through the web page. Quite interesting, the users will find it very useful to retrieve information from the library courtesy of the “Rate You Uni” Home page. The newsletter portions help the user to learn of other important features from different kind of organizations and institutions. The other interesting part is the conference portion; the button will link the students and users to organizations and institutions with conferences. The conference will expose the users to the outside world, extent the students thinking horizon and upgrade their standards through sharing and research presentation at the conference. Very important is the Join us button, that allows users globally to join the page and contribute either by blogging, posting through the social media or even posting directly in the web page (Dunford, 2008).

This will improve the students’ engagements on the page and sharing experience. Not every user web user in the world knows English, this makes the Learn English very important, and this will enable users to learn new vocabularies and improve their level of both written and spoken English. Last but very importantly is the advertisement portion, advertisements are very essential for the page because it’s the only revenue generation channel of the web page. The page also allows social media engagements and updates flow. This will also update the user on the social world happenings. This can also be noticed by humble space allocation for the adverts. The adverts must be visible for the potential customers and clients to notice (Dunford, 2008).

Importance of the home page wireframe

The features of “Rate Your Uni” home page are strategically designed for easy navigation and identification by the user. This will save on the users’ time to trace and go through different features in the web page. The web page is not crowded to allow easy retrieval of information by the user.  This adds value to the page as one that is easy to access. The features are also strategically placed to in that, very important features are close to the easy like the adverts, scholarships programs, universities, newsletters among other features. This also adds significance to the web page because users will not be crowed by less important but necessary features. Priority is very important and the page recognizes the need for priority to very essential features in the page, but also gives room for the recognition of other important factors which may not be that important (Dunford, 2008).

 Search Engine Optimization (SEO)

This is the practice of affecting the accessibility of site on a search engine “natural” or organic search results. It’s involves getting traffic from the “free” organic” or “natural” listings on chief search engines namely; Google, Bing and Yahoo. The above mentioned search engines have search results such as web pages, videos, or local listings which are displayed and ranked as per what the search engines consider as most relevant to users. The process does not involve payment as it is with paid search ads. It is essential to go into details on the process involved in Search Engine Optimization (SEO) for clear understanding. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is a strategic way of online marketing (Davis, 2006).

Before the commencement of a search engine optimization (SEO) development, it is important to know the elements involved in an effective search engine optimization (SEO) promotion. This is a highly technical and essential business process that is developed to meet specific business needs.  SEO has five key steps namely; Keyword research, reporting and goals setting, page optimization and content development, link building and last but not least follow up reporting and analysis. The steps are outlined in the diagram below (Davis, 2006).

a)      Keyword Research.

Keyword research involves identifying a collection of keywords phrases that will be used in optimization. It is a very essential phrase and needs a humble period of time to identify a good set of phrases that is able and sufficient enough to balance two vital factors namely; low competition within the search engines and high usage by searchers. The set of keywords phrases must be carefully selected words that will add value to the site and at the same time, control the traffic to the site. This will make the site accessible and easily visible on the search engines (Davis, 2006).

b)     Reporting and Goal setting

Once the targeted set of keywords have been identified, it is critical to note the subject site. This will ensure that specific areas which require attention are identified and given a baseline of which to measure the succeeding promotions success. One very important factor is the access to the site traffic. The searcher should be able to access the site as fast as possible to allow easy retrieval or access of the features on the site. The understanding of the traffic level in the site and the basis of its referrals is also a vital element in structuring other online marketing decisions. Keywords phrases, search engine, popular content, bounce rates are statistics that cannot be ignored because they determine how the searchers are accessing and interacting with the subject site. Search engine optimization (SEO) plan is very important and after establishing a complete structure of the site’s starting position, objectives are put in place for the search engine optimization plan. A well organized search engine optimization will upgrade the position of the page on the search engines, thus make the site accessible to users (Davis, 2006).

c)      Page Optimization

The optimization of the web page is vital to search engine success. The development of the page content is chief to search engine optimization. In addition, factors like high volume and high quality page content serves as an important business tool in many ways as detailed below. First and foremost, a web page or website with high-quality content of interest to the users will convince users to stay in the page and a reason to visit the web page again. Secondly, the page will get the added advantage of serving as per the search engine requirement. This will make the search engine to store more information regarding the business services and products, thus the easy information access will translate to the high ranking of the site for the related keywords phrases. This is the heart of marketing, visibility, once the site is visible and accessible; “Rate Your Uni” will obtain high potential to create as much as possible income from the adverts due to the popularity (Davis, 2006).

d)     Link Building

Link building involves the maximization of quality link popularity. Link high status refers to the number of other sites connected to the site. This can be achieved by first, making a list of related businesses in which the web page has got a relationship with, as well as the professional organization links, vendors or even suppliers that wants to place a link to their web page. Second, the page administrator should email the contact to those professional organizations requesting the link. The links will increase the business chances in the search engine for searchers looking for similar products and services that the business offers. Link building is essential in page boosting for the site optimizing. When other factors are the same, search engines will always work to the advantage of the higher page rank. Page rank is vital to link popularity and a reflection of how many sites has links pointing at the web page. This will mean increased business opportunity for the “Rate Your Uni” web page (Davis, 2006).

e)      Follow up reporting Analysis

Just like in the initial stage, the follow up stage is also done at standard intervals, post-optimization. At this stage, factors like site traffic, ranking and other vital metrics are then compared to pre-optimization levels, gauging results to the Search Engine Optimization (SEO).

On-page Optimization

The following are done for On-page optimization

  • The business works on site page-by-page basis to optimize the content.
  • The business identifies web pages that needs modification and provide the right optimization needed for higher ranking.
  • Ensure that all the methods applied are spam free
  • The business should adjust on factors like title and Meta tags, internal site link, reframing, keyword phrases and URL framing.
  • Extensive analysis should be done on the site and server to dig out any element related to standards compliance, page structure, internal and external link structure, domain usage among other factors that may lower the search engine position.
  • Last but not least, analysis is then done on source code of the site to correct anything that may lower the search engine.

Once all these are done, “Rate Your Uni” will be able to work perfectly on page optimization.

Off-page Optimization

When the on-page optimization is complete, the business should reload the site to identify any further modification. When the site is perfect, the business should upload the optimized content to the server. Once this is done, the site is now fully ready for major search engines and directories. This is good news for “Rate Your Uni” as the page will be able to work both On-page and off-page optimization (Davis, 2006).

Importance of Search Engine Optimization

The main objective of search engine optimization is to improve the business ranking on search engine results pages. If the web page or website appears at the top of the result page, the business has high chances of being found by the potential customers and clients. Search engine optimization is very critical to the business success. This is due to boost it provides to the online business marketing by putting the business close to the potential customers. Through page building, the business will have the potential to achieve a wide range of accessibility and online visibility. This is what the business needs to improve on its sales, once it has gain popularity from potential customers/clients (Davis, 2006).




DAVIS, H. (2006). Search Engine Optimization. Sebastopol, O’Reilly Media, Inc.

DUNFORD, T. (2008). Advanced search engine optimization: a logical approach. Wailuku [u.a.], American Creations of Maui.


Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized

The Key to Success – A Bridge to A Better Kenya


Unity- the key to success. As the African proverb put it ” if you don’t want to go far, go alone, but if you want to go far-go with others”. Unity is the key to success. Our spirit of “Harambee” (pulling together). That is the spirit in which our country was born out of, but which has face a lot more ( in fact even more) of stumbling blocks than expected. Let us all, in one spirit of unity, stand for Kenya. let us share and inspire strength of dialogue for unity in our country. We need each other in order to succeed, let us STOP creating the unproductive tribal blocks, which do us no good, except but create  instability in our country. Let us stand for Kenya, we own it, and she will forever feed and house us. let us share the knowledge w have with others, let us kill all the tribal boundaries, and move on us one strong country, a country with high potential to produces. We need each other to succeed in life and defiantly to steer growth in Kenya.

Leave a comment

July 11, 2013 · 2:18 pm

Key Pillars of Sustainable Development




Sustainable Development- the dream of many states/countries., but what are the key pillars of the much dreamed factor? Fascinatingly to note, the three chief pillars of sustainable development are blended in factors we talk about daily viz. Environment, Economy and Social.  Let us shred these factors bit by bit. First environment, our environment must be very peaceful and secure to foster growth. The society must be very united and cooperative to the rapid flux brought about by the environment. This will tilt our economy. The economy is the key pillar among the three chief pillars of sustainable development, it determines the future of the country, and so must be well maintained and protected from impunities, and other sources of instability like conflicts.

Leave a comment

Filed under Uncategorized